Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is the infection of the soft and hard tissue around one or more tooth, caused by specific bacteria, resulting in the breakdown and disappearance of gum and underlying alveolar bone, which is responsible for holding and supporting the teeth.
The most common bacteria associated with periodontal disease are Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. G), Tannerella forsythia (T.F) and Treponema denticola (T.D). A high level of these bacteria infiltrates the periodontal tissue and cause a localized infection. If left untreated and uncontrolled, they can spread to distant organ and tissue made possible via the blood stream and lymphatic system or nerve
Recent studies have supported the association of periodontal disease with a number of systemic and degenerative disease like, Alzheimer’s Disease, Inflammatory Arthritis, Stroke, Heart Attack, Pneumonia, Osteoporosis, Diabetes, and Pregnancy Diabetes Mellitus.
The conventional gum treatment is now inadequate to diagnose and treat rapidly developing severe periodontal disease effectively. The periodontal therapy provided has to be customized to target specific bacterial infection to treat the periodontal infections, and to prevent the development of systemic and degenerative diseases as a result of untreated periodontal disease
The use of oral bacteria DNA and gene testing will allow accurate diagnosis and then appropriate anti-microbial periodontal treatment can be rendered. This treatment will only be successful with the co-operation of the patient in order to treat and prevent the progression of periodontal disease. Home care is essential to the complete the anti-microbial periodontal therapy.